Amarna Tablet 75
Letter from Rib-Hadda to the Pharaoh


pictures from
Language: Akkadian
Medium: clay tablet
Size: cm long
cm wide
Length: 50 lines of writing
Genre: Letter
Sender: Rib-Hadda
(the mayor of Gubla)
Recipient Pharaoh of Egypt
(probably Amenophis III)
Date: 14th cent. BCE
Place of Discovery: Tel el-Amarna, Egypt
(ancient Akhetaten)
Date of Discovery: 1887
Discoverer: peasant woman
Current Location: Cairo Museum
Inventory Number: C 4757 (12191)
Tablet Number: EA 75
Knudtzon 1907–1915

(from Mercer 1939:1:276, 278)

(adapted from Mercer 1939:1:277, 279
and Moran 1992:145-46)
mRi-ib-Ad-da iq-bi 1 Rib-Hadda spoke
a-na bêli-Šú Šàr mâtâti 2 to his lord, the "King of Lands":
ilatBêlit Šá alGub-la 3 May the Mistress of Gubla
ti-din dunna a-na bêli-ia 4 grant power to my lord.
a-na Šêpê bêli-ia dŠamŠi-ia 5 At the feet of my lord, my sun,
7-tam 7-a-an am-ku-ut 6 I fall down seven times and seven times.
i-di Šarru bêlili i-nu-ma 7 Let the king, my lord, know that
Šal-ma-at alGub-la amtu-ka 8 Gubla, your handmaid from ancient times,
eŠ-iŠ da-ri-it ûmê 9 is well.
Šá-ni-tu dannat nunukurtu Šá sâbê GAZ.MEŠ 10 However, the war of the 'Apiru
muhhi-ia ga-am-ru mârê amêlitmârâtu 11 against me is severe. (Our) sons (and) daughters are gone,
isê bîtâti i-na na-da-ni 12 (as well as) the furnishings of the houses, because they have been sold
i-na mâtYa-ri-mu-ta i-na 13 in Yarimuta
i-na ba-la-at napiŠtiti-nu 14 to keep us alive.
eqli-ia aŠŠata Šá la mu-ta 15 My field is "a wife without a husband,"
ma-Ši-el áŠ- Šum ba-li 16 lacking
i-ri-Ši-im አ-ta-pa-ar ù 17 in cultivation. I have repeatedly
áŠ-ta-ni a-na êkalli á Š-Šum mur-zi-i muhhi-ia 18 written to the palace regarding the distress afflicting me,
. . . Šá i-da-gal a-wa-te Šá-a 19 . . . but no one has paid attention to the words
ia-nu ti-ikŠu-du-na li-eŠ-mi 20 that keep arriving. Let the king heed
Šarru a-na a-wa-temeŠ ardi-Šúa 21 the words of his servant.
. . . . . . 22 . . . . . .
. . . . . . 23 . . . . . .
. . . bu-ni ka-li 24 They . . . all
mâtât Šarriri bêli-ia mA-du-na 25 the lands of the king, my lord. Aduna,
Šàr alIr-qa-ta i-du-ku-na
amêlût Šîmi ù ia-nu
26-27 the king of Irqata, mercenaries have killed, and there is no one who
Šá aq-bi mi-im-ma a-na 28 has said anything to
mAbdi-AŠi-ir-ta ù ti-íl-ma-tu 29 Abdi-Ashirta, although you knew about it.
mMi-ya amêl alA-ra-áŠ-ni 30 Miya, the ruler of Arashni,
is-sa-bat alAr-da-ta 31 has taken Ardata;
ù an-nu-uŠ i-na-an-na 32 and behold now
amêlût alAm-mi-i ti-du-ku 33 the people of Ammiya have killed
bêla-Šú pa-al-ha-ti a-na-ku 34 their lord; so I am frightened.
li-el-ma-ad Šarru be-li 35 Let the king, my lord, know
i-nu-ma is-sa-bat Šàr ha-ti 36 that the king of Hatti has overcome
ka-li mâtâti ku-ti-ti 37 all the lands that belonged to
ŠàrmâtMi-it-ta Šum-ma 38 the king of Mittani or
Šàr mâtNa-ah-ma 39 the king of Nahma
mât Šarrâni ra-bu-ti 40 the land of the great kings.
mAbdi-AŠi-ir-ta ardu 41 Abdi-Ashirta, the slave,
kalbu yi-il-lik it-ti-Šú 42 the dog, has gone with him.
uŠ-Ši-ra sâbê bi-ta-ti 43 Send archers.
dannat muhhi 44 The hostility toward me is great.
. . . ma . . . 45 . . . . . .
. . . ma . . . 46 . . . . . .
. . . ta . . . 47 . . . . . .
a ti eŠ 48 . . . . . .
ù uŠ-Ši-ra amêla a-na al. . . 49 and send a man to the city of . . .
. . .-Šá-ra a-na-ku a-wa-te-Šú 50 I will . . . his words.

Rib-Hadda was the mayor of Gubla. In the Amarna correspondence, Rib-Hadda is the sender of EA 68-71, 73-79, 81-96, 102-114, 116-119, 121-126, 129-130, 132, 136-138, 362. He is also mentioned in twelve other letters.
Seven times is a common Semitic expression for "repeatedly." Note some biblical examples: Psalm 12:6; 119:164; Proverbs 24:16; Matthew 18:21-22; Luke 17:4.
Gubla is biblical Gebel, later called Byblos, on the Phoenician coast (in modern Lebanon).
Yarimuta is the name of a Phoenician coastal town, probably south of Beirut.
Irqata (biblical Arkite, modern Tell Arqa) is a Phoenician town northeast of Tripoli.
Arashni is an unknown location.
Ardata is a Phoenician town southeast of Tripoli.
Ammiya is probably modern Amyun, near Tripoli.
Hatti was the Hittite kingdom in eastern Asia Minor (modern Turkey).
Mitanni was the Hurrian kingdom between the Upper Euphrates and the Upper Tigris rivers (in northern modern Iraq and Syria).
Nahma (or Naharima) was the Egyptian name for Mitanni.
Great King was the ancient Semitic phrase describing an emperor (for biblical examples, see: 2 Kings 18:19; Psalm 48:2; 95:3; Isaiah 36:4; Jeremiah 27:7; Matthew 5:35).
Dog was a common Semitic metaphor of either derision or self-deprecation (for biblical examples, see: 1 Samuel 17:43; 2 Samuel 9:8; 16:9; 2 Kings 8:13).


1. What is Rib-Hadda's relationship to the recipient of the letter, the Pharaoh of Egypt? Why would Rib-Addi describe himself as bowing 7 times and 7 times before the Pharaoh?

2. Why is Rib-Hadda frightened? What catastrophes have already happened by the time he wrote this letter?
3. Who are the 'Apiru (see Astour 1976, Buccellati 1977, Gottwald 1979:401-26, Greenberg 1955, Hallock 1939, Lemche 1992, and Moran 1967? What role do they possibly play here?
4. Who is the Lady (Bêlit) of Gubla? What is her role in this letter?

Albright, W. F. "The Amarna Letters from Palestine." In Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. II.2: History of the Middle East and the Aegean Region 1380-1000 B.C., 98-116. 3d edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.
Aldred, Cyril. "Egypt: The Amarna Period and the End of the Eighteenth Dynasty." In Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. II.2: History of the Middle East and the Aegean Region 1380-1000 B.C., 49-97. 3d edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.
Astour, Michael C. "Habiru." In Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, Supplementary Volume, edited by Keith Crim, 382-85. Nashville: Abingdon, 1976.
Bezold, Carl and E. A. Wallis Budge. The Tell-el Amarna Tablets in the British Museum. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1892.
Campbell, Edward A. "The Amarna Letters and the Amarna Period." In Biblical Archaeologist Reader vol. 3, 54-75. New York: Doubleday, 1970.
Chaney, Marvin L. "Ancient Palestinian Peasant Movements and the Formation of Premonarchic Israel." In Palestine in Transition: The Emergence of Ancient Israel, edited by David Noel Freedman and David F. Graf, 39-90. Social World of Biblical Antiquity Series 2. Sheffield: Almond, 1983.
Greenberg, Moshe. Hab/piru. American Oriental Series 39. New Haven, CN: American Oriental Society, 1955.
Hallock, F. H. "The Habiru and the SA.GAZ in the Tell El-Amarna Tablets." In Mercer 1939:2:838-45.
Knudtzon, J. A. Die El-Amarna-Tafeln. Vorderasiatische Bibliotek. Vol. 2. Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1907–1915. Reprinted, Aalen: Zeller, 1964.
Mercer, Samuel A. B. The Tell El-Amarna Tablets. 2 vols. Toronto: Macmillan, 1939.
Moran, Willam L. The Amarna Letters. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1992.
Moran, William L. "Habiru (Habiri)." In The New Catholic Encyclopedia 6:878b-80b. Washington, DC: Catholic Univ. Press, 1967.
Morrison, Martha A. "Mitanni." In Anchor Bible Dictionary, edited by David Noel Freedman, 4:874-76. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
Na'aman, Nadav. "Amarna Letters." In Anchor Bible Dictionary, edited by David Noel Freedman, 1:174-81. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
Oppenheim, A. Leo. Letters from Mesopotamia. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1967.
Rogers, Robert William. Cuneiform Parallels to the Old Testament. New York: Eaton & Mains, 1912. Reprinted with new Foreword and Bibliography by K. C. Hanson. Ancient Texts and Translations. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2005.
Winckler, Hugo. The Tell-el-Amarna Letters. Translated by J. Metcalf. New York: Lemcke & Buechner, 1896.

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