|Length:||20 lines of writing|
|Place of Discovery:||Theadelphia, Egypt
|Date of Discovery:||?
|Inventory Number:||P.Thead. 15
(Readable as Greek if
the "Symbol" font is installed)
(from Hunt & Edgar 1934:208-11)
by K. C. Hanson
(adapted from Hunt & Edgar)
| EtouV V tou
kuriou hmwn Markou Aurhliou Probou Sebastou en tw Arsinoith pro bhmatoV
A few words have been reconstructed by the editors.
| The sixth year of our lord,
Marcus Aurelius Probus Augustus
, in the Arsinoite nome
, at court.
Marcus Aurelius Probus was Emperor of Rome 276–282 CE.
A "nome" was an Egyptian administrative district.
An "epistrategus" was one of three district governors who reported to the Roman Prefect of Egypt.
1. What was the social position of widows and orphans in the ancient Mediterranean? Why did they have such a difficult time with legal issues?
2. What role does the "evil eye" play in this case? What is the connection between the evil eye and theft?
3. Compare and contrast the situation of Artemis in this document with the situation of the widow in Jesus' parable (Luke 18:1-8). With the widow from Shunem helped by Elisha (2 Kgs 8:1-6)? With the widow Babatha and her son Jesus in the "Babatha Archives"?
4. Click here to read an ancient Hebrew document concerning a widow's legal petition for land rights.
Elliott, John H. "The Evil Eye and the Sermon on the Mount: Contours of a Pervasive Belief in Social Scientific Perspective." Biblical Interpretation 2 (1994) 51-84.
Elliott, John H. "The Evil Eye in the First Testament: The Ecology and Culture of a Pervasive Belief." In The Bible and the Politics of Exegesis: Essays in Honor of Norman K. Gottwald on His Sixty-Fifth Birthday. Edited by D. Jobling et al., 147-59. Cleveland: Pilgrim, 1991.
Elliott, John H. "The Fear of the Leer. The Evil Eye from the Bible to Li'l Abner." Forum 4/4 (1988) 42-71.
Fensham, F. C. "Widow, Orphan, and the Poor." Journal of Near Eastern Studies 21 (1962) 129-39.
Gottwald, Norman K. "The Plot Structure of Marvel or Problem Resolution Stories in the Elijah-Elisha Narratives and Some Musings on Sitz im Leben." In The Hebrew Bible in Its Social World and in Ours, 119-30. Semeia Studies. Atlanta: Scholars, 1993.
Hiebert, Paula S. "'Whence Shall Help Come to Me?': The Biblical Widow." In Gender and Difference in Ancient Israel. Edited by P. L. Day, 125-41. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1989.
Hoffner, Harry A. "Almanah." In Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Edited by G. J. Botterweck and H. Ringgren, 1.287-91. Translated by J. T. Willis. Rev. ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1977.
Hunt, A. S. and C. C. Edgar. Select Papyri. Vol. 2: Non-Literary Papyri; Public Documents. Loeb Classical Library 282. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1934.
Lewis, Naphtali. The Documents from the Bar Kokhba Period in the Cave of Letters: Greek Papyri. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1989.